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Online catalogue for the 56th tribal art auction

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368 Mask "idimu"

This object is not available any more.

Mask "idimu", D. R. Congo, Lega

D. R. Congo, Lega

wood, dull patina, kaolin, of oval form with a small heart-shaped deepened facial plane, divided by a straight nose ridge, flanked by bean-shaped, narrow slit eyes with raised rim, oval ears with drilled holes aside, a small pierced mouth and a beard of raffia fibres below, pierced around the rim, min. dam., fissures, insect caused damage, slight signs of abrasion, on base; Lega masks are "bwami" initiation objects. There are five different types: "lukwakongo", "kayamba", "idimu", "muminia", and "lukungu". They serve as important marks of rank, identifying the owners as members of specific "bwami" levels. The "idimu" mask is owned collectively and is kept by an appropriate member of "yananio" or "kindi". In a major performance , the "idumu" mask is hung on a fence surrounded by the smaller, individually owned "lukwakongo" masks.

H: 31,5 cm
H: 12.4 inch

Provenance
Yann Ferrandin, Paris, France
Pierre Dartevelle, Brussels, Belgium
Marceau Rivière, Paris, France
Private Collection

Literature
Cameron, Elisabeth L., Art of the Lega, Los Angeles 2001, p. 195

Price: 8000 - 12000 €

369 Necklace "mubanga"

This object is not available any more.

Necklace "mubanga", D. R. Congo, Lega

D. R. Congo, Lega

tubular glass beads of different size, thread on plant fibre bast, 29 animal teeth inbetween, of different origin, the biggest coming from the leopard, two imitations carved in ivory, an ivory figure pendant in the middle, showing a tooth-shaped corpus with anthropomorphic head, on base; the beaded necklace with one, two or an indefinite number of leopard teeth is a privilege of all initiates. It belongs to the "bwami" insignias ("bilondo"), public proclamations of rank and status within the "bwami" society.

L: 36 cm; H: 10 cm (Figurine)
L: 14.2 inch; H: 3.9 inch (Figurine)

Provenance
Coll. Ingo Evers, Bonn, Germany

Literature
Biebuyck, Daniel P., Lega - Ethics and Beauty in the Heart of Africa, Ausst.kat., Brüssel 2002, p. 52, cat. 12
Cameron, Elisabeth L., Art of the Lega, Los Angeles 2001, p.70, ill. 5.7

Price: 2800 - 4000 €

370 Miniature mask "lukwakongo"

This object is not available any more.

Miniature mask "lukwakongo", D. R. Congo, Lega

D. R. Congo, Lega

wood, dark brown patina, of oval form, concave vaulted, a short raised nose ridge, flanked by bean-shaped eyes, notched mouth, grooved chin, pierced around the rim, dam., paint rubbed off, missing part (left rim), on metal base; the Lega people believe that their sculptures have the power to strengthen ones life force ("kalamo"). When a person is considered to be very sick and normal medicines seem to fail, they take a small knife and cut or scrape off a piece of a magical masquette, scepter or ivory spoon, which is then powdered, mixed with other ingredients and eaten ritually as a medicine. This could explain the missing piece and trace of scraping at the left rim.

H: 14 cm
H: 5.5 inch

Provenance
Carlo Bold, Belgium

Literature
Cameron, Elisabeth L., Art of the Lega, Los Angeles 2001, p. 18 and 202
De Smet, Peter A. G. M., Herbs, health, healers, Africa as ethnopharmacological treasury, Berg en Dal 1999, p. 52

Sold.

371 Anthropomorphic janus-faced figure

This object is not available any more.

Anthropomorphic janus-faced figure, D. R. Congo, Lega

D. R. Congo, Lega

light brown wood, blackened in parts, a strong neck with incisions, supporting a janus head with nearly identical faces: a heart-shaped facial plane with a slightly raised nose ridge and drilled nostrils, framed by rectangular eyes, an opened mouth below, dotted incisions in the forehead area, hole on top of the head, min. dam., fissures, slight signs of abrasion, on wooden base; initiation object, belonging to "bwami" members of "yananio" or "kindi" levels, they appear in layered metaphors and present positive and negative role models within the "bwami" ethical system.

H: 18 cm
H: 7.1 inch

Provenance
Jean-Pierre Hallet, Malibu, USA

Literature
Cameron, Elisabeth L., Art of the Lega, Los Angeles 2001, p. 117

Price: 2000 - 3000 €

372 Mask "idimu"

This object is not available any more.

Mask "idimu", D. R. Congo, Lega

D. R. Congo, Lega

wood, brown patina, kaolin, of oval elongated form, pierced almond-shaped eyes flanking a long nose ridge, an open mouth with protruding lower lip below, pierced around the rim, small missing parts, slight signs of abrasion, fissures, on metal base

H: 28,5 cm
H: 11.2 inch

Provenance
Peter Löbarth, Hameln, Germany

Literature
Biebuyck, Daniel P., Lega - Ethics and Beauty in the Heart of Africa, Ausst.kat., Brüssel 2002, p. 114, ill. 59

Price: 3000 - 4500 €

373 Face mask

This object is not available any more.

Face mask, D. R. Congo, Lele

D. R. Congo, Lele

wood, blackish brown patina, red paint, traces of turquoise paint, shield-shaped, flat, the area of forehead and cheeks slightly vaulted, the actual facial plane concentrated on a rather small area, raised bean-shaped eyes with narrow slits flanking a flat, triangular nose, a notched mouth below, linear angular scarification marks aside the forehead, band tattoos with raster pattern aside the nose, the whole facial plane framed by eight tubular projections, decorating nails on forehead and cheeks, pierced around the rim for attachment, slightly dam., minor missing parts at the rim, on metal base; the Lele are decisively influenced by neighbouring Kuba groups, which makes it difficult to differentiate their ritual artworks from those of the other Kuba kinsmen. Typical however, are shield-shaped, flat masks, painted in various colours, and with slit pierced eyes, several eye brows, and small mouths.

H: 31 cm
H: 12.2 inch

Provenance
Coll. Castellani, Corsica, France

Literature
Felix, Marc L., 100 Peoples of Zaire and their Sculpture, The Handbook, Brüssel 1987, p. 74 f.

Price: 5500 - 8000 €

374 Mask

This object is not available any more.

Mask, D. R. Congo, Lele

D. R. Congo, Lele

wood, black encrusted patina, of oval form, a domed forehead, decorated with a loop-like ornament, curved eyebrows with almond-shaped eyes below, flanking a straight nose with broad alae, an oval open-worked mouth underneath, star-shaped scarification marks in the forehead area, pierced around the rim, min. dam., missing parts, on base

H: 22,5 cm
H: 8.9 inch

Price: 1500 - 2300 €

375 dropped

This object is not available any more.

376 Game board for the "mancala" game

This object is not available any more.

Game board for the "mancala" game, D. R. Congo, Luba

D. R. Congo, Luba

wood, middle brown patina with traces of black paint, massive, half-circular corpus on pedestal, the rectangular plane on top applied with six rows of four half-circular deepenings, small diamond-shaped ornaments inbetween, handle in the shape of a long, curved neck with anthropomorphic head, the latter elaborately carved, showing a burled coiffure with headband and symmetrical carved facial features, slightly dam., cracks (head, rim of the game board), on metal base; such game boards are well known in most parts of Africa. They are still used nowadays. The stones are usually fruit kernels.

M: 35 x 25 cm (Spielbrett); H: 53 cm (gesamt)
M: 35 x 9.8 inch (Spielbrett); H: 20.9 inch (gesamt)

Provenance
Philipp Konzett, Graz, Austria

Literature
Neyt, Francois, Luba, Aan de Bronnen van de Zaire, Ausst.kat., Paris 1994, p. 199
Roberts, Mary Nooter, Memory, Luba Art and the Making of History, Ausst.kat., New York 1996, p. 132, cat. 56

Sold.

377 Divining instrument "kashekesheke"

This object is not available any more.

Divining instrument "kashekesheke", D. R. Congo, Luba

D. R. Congo, Luba

wood, shiny brown patina,

H: 15 cm
H: 5.9 inch

Provenance
André Schoeller, Paris, France

Literature
Roberts, Allen F., Luba, Mailand 2007, ill. 54

Price: 1800 - 2700 €

378 Head of an axe

This object is not available any more.

Head of an axe, D. R. Congo, Shankadi

D. R. Congo, Shankadi

wood, brown and black paint, in form of a human head, a bulging forehead with rhomb-shaped deepened eyes below, flanking a flat triangular nose, an open mouth underneath, where originally the blade was affixed, surmounted by a four-parted coiffure, min. dam., small missing parts, on metal base

H: 8,5 cm
H: 3.3 inch

Literature
Agthe, Johanna, Luba Hemba, Werke unbekannter Meister, Frankfurt am Main 1983, p. 82 f.

Price: 300 - 450 €

379 Staff figure

This object is not available any more.

Staff figure, D. R. Congo, Luba

D. R. Congo, Luba

wood, shiny reddish brown patina, of abstract form, fork-shaped legs supporting an armless, elongated trunk, crowned by a round head with tribe-typical facial features and a coiffure flattened to the back, min. dam., fissures, slight signs of abrasion, on metal base; very exceptional object ! the artistic sensibility of the highly gifted Luba people, whose sculpted figures are amongst the most noble and graceful in the whole of Africa, is also expressed in their staffs.

H: 62 cm
H: 24.4 inch

Provenance
Jan Lundberg, Malmö, Sweden

Sold.

380 Fertility doll

This object is not available any more.

Fertility doll, D. R. Congo, Luba

D. R. Congo, Luba

wood, dark brown patina, abstract form, massive cylindrical corpus with incised scarification marks on the front side, surmounted by four angled legs supporting an arching disc on top, decorated with linear patterns, slightly dam., minor missing parts, hairline cracks; twins play important roles in Luba and Tabwa histories and beliefs as culture heroes. A proxy for a deceased twin, a twin figure is fed, bathed, loved and put to bed with the living twin.

H: 12 cm
H: 4.7 inch

Provenance
Private Collection, Belgium

Literature
Cameron, Elisabeth L., Isn't she a doll? Play and Ritual in African Sculpture, Los Angeles 1996, p. 82
Bofinger, Brigitte und Wolfgang, Puppen aus Afrika, Stuttgart 2006, p. 92

Sold.

381 Ceremonial axe

This object is not available any more.

Ceremonial axe, D. R. Congo, Shankadi

D. R. Congo, Shankadi

wood, shiny brown patina, corroded metal, a shaft, circular in cross-section, surmounted by a head with a punched iron blade growing out of its mouth, showing a downwelling coiffure, min. dam., slight signs of abrasion, small missing parts (right ear)

L: 44 cm
L: 17.3 inch

Provenance
Yann Ferrandin, Paris, France
Private Collection, USA

Literature
Fischer, Werner/Zirngibl, Manfred A., Afrikanische Waffen, Passau 1978, p. 137, ill. 247

Price: 2200 - 3300 €

382 Axe

This object is not available any more.

Axe, D. R. Congo, Luba

D. R. Congo, Luba

wood, reddish brown patina, metal, a round handle, slightly drawn in, the base carved with a human head with tribe-typical facial features: big slanting eyes flanking a triangular nose, a slightly opened mouth with full lips below, a delicately ornamented blade merging from an oval flattened axe head decorated with parallel incisions, min. dam., slightly corroded, signs of abrasion, on base; beyond their role as prestige emblems, axes carry more profound messages in Luba royal ritual. Above all they play a central role in the initiation rites of "mbudye", an association responsible for inducting persons into royal office.The axe is the instrument used to clear the path. Its meaning is expressed by the delicately engraved ornaments adorning the axe blades, called "ntapo". These marks represent the scarfication patterns worn by women - for erotic pleasure and for beauty - but also as a form of writing to communicate identity and social status, and to convey concepts of order, cosmos, and physical as well as moral perfection.

H: 29 cm
H: 11.4 inch

Provenance
Jan Lundberg, Malmö, Sweden
Pierre Dartevelle, Brussels, Belgium

Published in
Malmö Konsthall (ed.), Afrikanskt, Malmö 1986, p. 145, ill. 177

Literature
Roberts, Mary Nooter, Memory, Luba Art and the Making of History, Ausst.kat., New York 1996, p. 77, ill. 25
Roberts, Allen F., Luba, Mailand 2007, pl. 38

Price: 20000 - 30000 €

383 Axe handle

This object is not available any more.

Axe handle, D. R. Congo, Mangbetu

D. R. Congo, Mangbetu

light brown wood, blackened in parts, the base carved with a tribe-typical human head with reduced facial features, the axe-head decorated with elaborate carved ornaments, min. dam., slight signs of abrasion and usage, on base; the Mangbetu live in the northeastern Zaire, bordering the Sudan and the Zentral African Republic. They mainly produced articles of daily use or ritual used objects. Figures of the Mangbetu are rare. They appear individual or in pairs and can be looked upon as representations of ancestors. The shape of the coiffure reflects the lengthened skull which corresponds to the current ideal of beauty the Mangbetu aristocracy always had.

H: 51 cm
H: 20.1 inch

Provenance
Alain Guisson, Brussels, Belgium

Price: 1800 - 2700 €

384 Figure "okifa" of the "lilwa" secret society

This object is not available any more.

Figure "okifa" of the "lilwa" secret society, D. R. Congo, Mbole

D. R. Congo, Mbole

wood, dark brown patina, polychrome paint remains, of very schematized forms, long legs are supporting a slender angular trunk framed by free worked arms, the hands merging into the hips, crowned by a neckless oval head with a flattened chin and stylized facial features, min. dam., missing parts (left foot), on wooden base; as an ethnic entity the Mbole belong to the Ngandu, counting about 150000 people. They have their homeland in the nortern Democratic Republic Congo on the Lomami River and its tributaries, southwest of the town of Kisangani. Their neighbours are the Lengola and Kumu in the east, and the Yela in the west. The present figure belonging to the "lilwa " (leopard) society. Used at initiation rites and depicting a hanged person, as a warning for the young initiates not to reveal the secrets of the society.

H: 37 cm
H: 14.6 inch

Provenance
Hotel Drouot, Art Primitif, 19 Juni 2000, lot 8000

GVR Archives Registration No.
0104912

Literature
Schädler, Karl-Ferdinand, Lexikon Afrikanische Kunst und Kultur, München, Berlin 1994, p. 278

Price: 1500 - 2500 €

385 Female figure

This object is not available any more.

Female figure, D. R. Congo, Ngbandi

D. R. Congo, Ngbandi

wood, dull patina, remains of black paint, short legs carrying a barrel-shaped torso, angular shoulders merging into free worked arms with stylized hands, a bulky neck supporting a big head with incised, simplified facial features and scarification marks, framed by big ears, min. dam., small missing parts through insect caused damage, signs of abrasion, on wooden base; the Ngbandi are an ethnical group of about 120000 people, living in the northwest of Zaire, east and south of the Oubangi river. The present figure probably depicting the ghost being of "ngbirondo", who used to be situated as guardian figure at the village entrance.

H: 27,5 cm
H: 10.8 inch

Provenance
Private Collection, Belgium

Literature
Felix, Marc L., 100 Peoples of Zaire and their Sculpture, The Handbook, Brüssel 1987, p. 123, ill. 1

Price: 1300 - 1950 €

386 Standing female power figure

This object is not available any more.

Standing female power figure, D. R. Congo, Nsapo-Nsapo

D. R. Congo, Nsapo-Nsapo

middle brown wood, small residues of black paint, short legs with constrictions supporting a slender trunk with handle-shaped arms, a neck with accentuated Adam's apple carved with a head with tapering chin and raised bean-shaped eyes, incised scarification marks, pyro-engraved, missing parts because of insect caused damage (neck, left leg, head), on metal base; the Nsapo are a small ethnical group in the southern centre of Zaire. Once they were part of the Songe-Beneki clan, which was pushed from the Songe enclave by Arab traders and their local allies. Thus they were detached from their own traditions and came under new cultural influences. These were not only African, from the Lulua and Luba, but also European. This fact is reflected in the wide variety of sometimes unrelated styles. The Nsapo have no masks, basically they created mother and power figures.

H: 20 cm
H: 7.9 inch

Provenance
Hans Himmelheber (1908-2003), Heidelberg, Germany

Literature
Felix, Marc L., 100 Peoples of Zaire and their Sculpture, The Handbook, Brüssel 1987, p. 134 f.

Sold.

387 Deformation mask "mbangu"

This object is not available any more.

Deformation mask "mbangu", D. R. Congo, Pende

D. R. Congo, Pende

wood, black and white paint, of hollowed form with a tapering chin, a bulging forehead with arching brows and eyes with hanging lids below, flanking a "snub nose", raffia bast bonnet on the back, min. dam., slight signs of abrasion; this mask is a depiction of a highly regarded hunter who has been stricken with facial paralysis. In performance, the "mbangu" mask is danced with a whole cast of character types, from clown to sorcerer and prostitute. The black and white painting refers to the scars of someone who fell into fire due to epilepsy or some medical condition.

H: 35 cm
H: 13.8 inch

Provenance
Private Collection, Italy

Literature
Herreman, Frank, To Cure and Protect: Sickness and Health in African Art, New York 1999, p. 20 f.

Sold.

388 Mask "mbuya"

This object is not available any more.

Mask "mbuya", D. R. Congo, Pende

D. R. Congo, Pende

wood, red, white and black paint, of oval hollowed form, a bulging forehead with arching brows and small eyes with hanging lids below, flanking a curved "snub nose", coloured scarification marks "mifunyi" on the cheeks, a small mouth with protruding lips underneath, raffia bast bonnet on the back, pierced around the rim, min. dam., signs of abrasion

H: 35 cm
H: 13.8 inch

Provenance
Private Collection, Italy

Sold.

389 Face mask

This object is not available any more.

Face mask, D. R. Congo, Pende

D. R. Congo, Pende

wood, dyed in red, black paint, a bulging forehead with a concave moulded facial plane underneath, pierced eyes with lowered lids flanking a tapering nose, raised scarification marks on the cheeks, pierced around the rim for attachment of grass fibre bundles, remainders of a bonnet and collection number "1981.2.19" on the back

H: 24 cm
H: 9.4 inch

Provenance
University of Virginia Art Museum ("1981.2.19"), USA

Sold.

390 Mask "mbuya"

This object is not available any more.

Mask "mbuya", D. R. Congo, Pende

D. R. Congo, Pende

wood, plant fibres, of oval form with pointed chin and bulging forehead, narrow slit eyes with heavy lids flanking a straight nose with broad alae, an open mouth with visible teeth below, tribe-typical parallel scarification marks in the area of forehead and cheeks, crowned by a coiffure made of plaited plant fibres, remains of a bonnet on the rear, pierced around the rim, min. dam., signs of abrasion; masks of the Pende were used to worship the chief and for initiation rites or for sacred purposes of the priests. In particular, this artist has captured the "bedroom eyes" ("zanze") believed essential to women's power over men. The eyes are relatively small in size and the upper lids curve downwards to create the impression that they are nearly closed.

H: 27,5 cm, coll. in situ, 1953
H: 10.8 inch, coll. in situ, 1953

Provenance
Coll. Lore Kegel, Hamburg, Germany
Lempertz, 30 March 2006, lot 146

Literature
Strother, Z.S., Inventing masks, Agency and history in the art of the central Pende, Chicago 1998, p. 138, ill. 6

Sold.

391 Necklace with pendant "ikoko"

This object is not available any more.

Necklace with pendant "ikoko", D. R. Congo, Pende

D. R. Congo, Pende

ivory, beads, pendant of oval form with a bulging forehead, bean-shaped raised eyes flanking a small nose, a slightly pointed mouth with a long beard ("mwevu") below, supposed to be a symbol for authority and wisdom of the ancestors, decorated with pyro-engraved ornaments, affixed to a necklace consisting of red and white beads, min. dam., slight signs of usage, fissures; used for healing rites, worn around the neck in order to protect the patient. Presented as trophy after the initiation of young boys as well.

L: 36,5 cm resp. 6 cm, coll. in situ, 1953
L: 14.4 inch resp. 2.4 inch, coll. in situ, 1953

Provenance
Coll. Lore Kegel, Hamburg, Germany

Literature
Kerchache, Jacques, Paudrat, Jean-Louis, Stephan, Lucien, Die Kunst des Schwarzen Afrika, Freiburg, Basel, Wien 1988, ill. 219 ff.

Sold.

392 Pendant "ikoko"

This object is not available any more.

Pendant "ikoko", D. R. Congo, Pende

D. R. Congo, Pende

ivory, honey brown patina, of oval form with a bulging forehead, bean-shaped raised eyes flanking a small nose, a slightly pointed mouth with a long beard ("mwevu") below, supposed to be a symbol for authority and wisdom of the ancestors, decorated with pyro-engraved ornaments, collection number on the back "P 31", min. dam., fissures

H: 5,5 cm, coll. in situ, 1956
H: 2.2 inch, coll. in situ, 1956

Provenance
Lore Kegel & Dr. Georg Kegel, Hamburg, Germany

Literature
Kerchache, Jacques, Paudrat, Jean-Louis, Stephan, Lucien, Die Kunst des Schwarzen Afrika, Freiburg, Basel, Wien 1988, ill. 219 ff.

Sold.

393 Mask "idangani"

This object is not available any more.

Mask "idangani", D. R. Congo, Salampasu

D. R. Congo, Salampasu

raffia, plant fibres, a facial plane of plaited dark brown plant fibre, the protruding forehead and the fleshy nose upholstered with wooden chips, the beard made of loose suspending fibres, crowned by five horn-like appendages on top of the head, min. dam., hole (horn), on metal base; this type of mask was probably used by the "idangani" society.

H: 43,5 cm (without beard)
H: 17.1 inch (without beard)

Literature
Grootaers, J.-L.and I. Eisenburger (Hg.), Forms of Wonderment, The History and Collections of the Afrika Museum Berg En Dal, Vol. II, 2002, p. 547

Price: 800 - 1200 €

394 Mask "mukinka"

This object is not available any more.

Mask  "mukinka", D. R. Congo, Salampasu

D. R. Congo, Salampasu

wood, black paint, kaolin, a bulging forehead with a small triangular facial plane below, pierced eyes and nose, a broad nose with flattened rim, crowned by a coiffure of rattan bowls, a beard of plaited plant fibres and rattan bowls underneath, cord netting on the rear, min. dam.; Salampasu masks were mainly associated with societies of warriors, called "mungongo". A warrior obtained the right to wear a mask by executing prescribed tasks and by the payment of a kind of initiation fee for entering into a particular society. The funeral of a renowned warrior was accompanied by the performance of all his masks.

H: 29,5 cm (without beard)
H: 11.6 inch (without beard)

Provenance
Jan Visser, Brussels, Belgium

Literature
Weinhold, Ulrike,The Eternal Face, Afrika Museum Berg en Dal, 2000, p. 181, ill. 4

Sold.

395 Magical figure "nkisi"

This object is not available any more.

Magical figure "nkisi", D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, reddish brown patina with traces of black paint, encrusted in some areas, with short legs rising from massive feet, supporting a stocky trunk with accentuated navel and disc-shaped flattened shoulders, the tube-like curved arms lifted up to the face, with both hands resting on the beard, a long neck carved with rings carrying a half-spherical head with a shield-shaped facial plane, reminding of the "kifwebe" masks, small opening on top of the head, filled with magical material, slightly dam., cracks (head and hips backside, right forearm); the form of the "kifwebe" strongly influenced the statuary art of the Songe, above all in the area of the Kalebwe, presumably because of the great meaning the "bwadi ka bifwebe" society won in that area.

H: 27 cm
H: 10.6 inch

Provenance
German Collection

Literature
Mestach, Jean Willy, Songye Studien, Formen und Symbolik, Ein analytischer Essay, München 1985, fig. 19

Sold.

396 Standing female power figure

This object is not available any more.

Standing female power figure, D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, shiny black patina, rising from fragmentary legs, supporting a trunk with square shoulders, both hands resting aside a prominent navel, a massive neck carrying a head with a triangular flattened facial plane, the eyes inset with cowrie snails, the mouth in the shape of a "lying eight", incised scarification marks on the upper part of the body, plant fiber loincloth, animal tooth necklace, on base; in most cases power figures depict males, the choice of a female shape and the stress of sexual characteristics indicates that it was made to guarantee human and agricultural fertility.

H: 41 cm
H: 16.1 inch

Provenance
Patrick van de Velde, Brussels, Belgium

Literature
Neyt, Francois, Songye, La redoutable Statuaire Songye d´Afrique Centrale, Ausst.kat. Brüssel 2004, p. 280, ill. 262

Sold.

397 Miniature mask, "kifwebe" style

This object is not available any more.

Miniature mask, "kifwebe" style, D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

light brown wood, of narrow, shield-shaped form, tapering to the crest, narrow slit, slanting eyes flanking a short triangular nose, a square protruding mouth below, the facial plane coated with linear incisions, accentuated by kaolin, rubbed into the deepenings, blackened eye zone, camwood powder in the mouth area; miniature masks embody the big mask figures and were taken along to keep in touch with the helping spirits even when travelling. Thus they were worn by men and women as well. When a girl moved to another village because of marriage she received such a small mask.

H: 14 cm
H: 5.5 inch

Sold.

398 Miniature figure

This object is not available any more.

Miniature figure, D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

ivory, honey brown patina, a block-like body, pressed in on both sides, angled arms, carved in relief, with both hands resting aside a bulging abdomen, round openings on the abdomen and on top of the head, filled with white mass; such pendants embody adored ancestors. Together with further objects, such as amulets, beads and horns they were fixed to cord material, worn diagonally across the chest. The figures were anointed with oil and were kept in steady contact with human skin, which generates their beautiful honey brown patina.

H: 7,5 cm
H: 3 inch

Provenance
Old Belgian Collection

Sold.

399 Miniature mask "kifwebe"

This object is not available any more.

Miniature mask "kifwebe", D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

light brown wood, black paint, of elongated, slightly waisted form, curved eyebrows with open worked oval eyes below, flanking a straight arrow-shaped nose, a protruding rectangular mouth underneath, coated by a grooved pattern, min. dam., small missing parts, slight signs of abrasion, on base; dense parallel striations on the face and the lack of a comb prove that this mask is of female type "kikashi". They represent positive powers and are mainly used at masquerades taking place at night, for example at important moon ceremonies, or in case of the death of chief.

H: 16,5 cm
H: 6.5 inch

Literature
Mestach, Jean Willy, Songye Studien, Formen und Symbolik, Ein analytischer Essay, München 1985, p. 82, fig. 6

Sold.

400 Pipe

This object is not available any more.

Pipe, D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, brown patina, metal, circular corpus, crowned by a standing male "nkisi" figure, decorated with brass tags and a blue necklace, min. dam., missing parts (left arm), fissures, signs of usage, on wooden base

H: 43,5 cm
H: 17.1 inch

Provenance
Private Collection, Great Britain

Price: 1000 - 2000 €

401 Small magical figure

This object is not available any more.

Small magical figure, D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, reddish brown patina, rising from a round base, straight legs supporting a slender trunk with a protruding belly, angular shoulders merging into free worked arms, the left hand resting on the belly, the right one grapping the chin, a long neck carrying an oval head with regular, tribe-typical facial features and chin beard, crowned by a delicately grooved coiffure, two drillings (top of the head, back) for insertion of magical mass, min. dam., slight signs of abrasion, on wooden base; small magical figures are used by individuals and belong to private households.

H: 19 cm
H: 7.5 inch

Provenance
Noble & Jean Endicott, New York, USA

Literature
Mestach, Jean Willy, Songye Studien, Formen und Symbolik, Ein analytischer Essay, München 1985, p. 116, fig. 29

Price: 3000 - 4500 €

402 Ceremonial staff

This object is not available any more.

Ceremonial staff, D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, dark brown patina, thin staff, circular in cross-section, partly coated with stripes of metal sheet, the lower third and the upper part carved with a waisted rectangular ornament, surmounted by a standing human figure: short legs supporting an elongated trunk, flanked by straight, free worked arms, above a long neck an oval head with simplified facial features, the area of the head and the upper part of the body decorated with metal tags, dam., missing parts through insect caused damage, signs of abrasion, on base; ceremonial staffs are not only status symbols, they serve as historical documents: their forms and ornaments have coded meanings concerning history and lineage of its owner.

H: 101 cm
H: 39.8 inch

Provenance
Coll. Jacques R. van Overstraeten, Brussels, Belgium

Literature
Neyt, Francois, Songye, La redoutable Statuaire Songye d'Afrique Centrale, Ausst.kat., Brüssel 2004, p. 369

Price: 2000 - 3000 €

403 Anthropomorphic face mask "kifwebe"

This object is not available any more.

Anthropomorphic face mask "kifwebe", D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, dark brown patina, kaolin, of narrow, elongated form with bulging forehead and concave facial plane, entirely coated with fine grooves, dominated by a protruding triangular nose and a cuboid mouth, pierced around the rim, slightly dam., paint rubbed off, cracks, missing parts at the lower rim, on base; because of the missing forehead crest belonging to the female type of kifwebe masks "kikashi". The mask is supplemented by a plaited costume and a long beard of raffia fiber. It used to appear at various ceremonies, with the function of a security force or for warding off enemies in cases of war.

H: 37 cm
H: 14.6 inch

Provenance
Private Collection, Belgium

Literature
Hersak, Dunja, Songye, Masks and Figure Sculpture, London 1986, p. 111, ill. 68

Price: 1200 - 1800 €

404 Magical figure "nkis"

This object is not available any more.

Magical figure "nkis", D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, reddish brown patina, brass tags, with short legs rising from a disc-shaped base, supporting a body with edged shoulders and free carved arms, both hands resting aside a circular deepening within the bulging abdomen, crowned by an elongated trapezoid head with concave vaulted chin, face and body entirely coated with brass tags, wearing a grass fibre skirt and leather apron, head with inserted nail and and leather cape, magical substances inserted below, slightly dam., cracks, minor missing parts (at the nose), on base

H: 32 cm
H: 12.6 inch

Provenance
Coll. Werner Wallasheim, Berlin, Germany

Literature
Mestach, Jean Willy, Songye Studien, Formen und Symbolik, Ein analytischer Essay, München 1985, p. 65 f.
Baeke, Viviane (ed.), Treasures from the Africa-Museum Tervuren, Tervuren 1995, p. 346

Price: 3800 - 6000 €

405 Small magical figure "nkisi"

This object is not available any more.

Small magical figure "nkisi", D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, dark brown, partly shiny patina, the whole lower part of the body wrapped up in a fibre apron, a cylindrical torso with angular shoulders merging into angled arms, the hands resting on the belly, wearing a metal ring and a string of glass beads with several pendants (bell, animal horn, bone) around the neck, crowned by a head with tribe-typical facial features, one eye inset with a metal tag, an animal horn with stripes of cloth affixed on top of the head, on wooden base

H: 28,5 cm
H: 11.2 inch

Literature
Mestach, Jean Willy, Songye Studien, Formen und Symbolik, Ein analytischer Essay, München 1985, p. 117

Price: 1000 - 1500 €

406 Small magical figure "nkisi"

This object is not available any more.

Small magical figure "nkisi", D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

light brown wood, dull, spotty patina, rising from a circular base, short legs with big feet supporting a slender trunk with angular shoulders and angled arms, both hands resting on the abdomen, typical facial features with crescent mouth, bulging forehead and a hole on top of the head, min. dam., fissures, slight signs of abrasion

H: 18,5 cm, coll. in situ, 1952-56
H: 7.3 inch, coll. in situ, 1952-56

Sold.

407 Big magical figure "nkisi"

This object is not available any more.

Big magical figure "nkisi", D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

light brown wood, dull greyish brown patina, rising from a circular base, the whole lower part of the body wrapped up in a fibre apron, a cylindrical torso with angular shoulders merging into free worked angled arms, both hands resting on the belly, two plant fibre strings with tube-like pendants, filled with magical mass, crowned by a head with tribe-typical facial features, partly coated with copper sheet, the eyes inserted with cowrie snails and metal tags, animal horn on top of the head, old collection label on the back "158-305", min. dam., slight signs of abrasion, fissures; such big "nkisi" figures were made for the village community, they were "loaded" with magic substances "bishimba" to grant protection and fertility. In most cases they were handed over from generation to generation. The small personal "nkisi" were taken along when leaving familiar surroundings.

H: 62 cm, collected in situ, at the beginning of the 50's
H: 24.4 inch, collected in situ, at the beginning of the 50's

Provenance
Kegel-Konietzko, Hamburg, Germany (1953)
Coll. Hubert Caspers, Hamburg (1957)

Literature
Mestach, Jean Willy, Songye Studien, Formen und Symbolik, Ein analytischer Essay, München 1985, p. 105

Sold.

408 Magical half figure "nkisi"

This object is not available any more.

Magical half figure "nkisi", D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, dark brown patina with traces of black paint, a bell-shaped base supporting a slender trunk, clamp-like enclosed by long arms with fan-like arranged big hands resting aside the abdomen, surmounted by a triangular face with deeply cut slanting eyes and a big cavity on top of the head, the originally inserted animal horn and magical mass now missing, slightly dam., cracks, minor missing parts, paint rubbed off, old collection number in white paint on the underside "0381"

H: 19 cm
H: 7.5 inch

Provenance
Harvey T. Menist, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Literature
Hersak, Dunja, Songye, Masks and Figure Sculpture, London 1986, p. 154, ill. 118

Price: 1800 - 2700 €

409 Small magical figure

This object is not available any more.

Small magical figure, D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

light brown wood, dull patina, red pigment remains, with short legs rising from a square base, supporting a trunk with narrow shoulders, both hands resting aside a bulging abdomen, crowned by a big head with flattened chin and cap-like coiffure, metal tag inserted on the forehead, hole on top of the head, dam., cracks, missing parts through insect caused damage, slight signs of abrasion

H: 17 cm
H: 6.7 inch

Price: 1200 - 1800 €

410 Magical figure "nkisi"

This object is not available any more.

Magical figure "nkisi", D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, brown patina, kaolin, with big flat feet and short legs rising from a circular base, both hands resting on the abdomen aside a deepened navel, a strong neck supporting an oval head with fine carved facial features, crowned by a helmet-shaped coiffure and animal horn on top of the head, min. dam., cracks, slight signs of abrasion; "nkisi" figures were items of pure private character, they were used for protection and healing. The included magic materials called "bishimba" gained power and interacted with the world of the spirits when they were combined according to traditional rules of the "nganga", the sorcerer.

H: 45 cm
H: 17.7 inch

Provenance
Coll. Manfred Sackmann, Berlin, Germany

Literature
Mestach, Jean Willy, Songye Studien, Formen und Symbolik, Ein analytischer Essay, München 1985, p. 116, ill. 29

Price: 4000 - 6000 €

411 Power figure "nkisi"

This object is not available any more.

Power figure "nkisi", D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, reddish brown and black encrusted patina, rising from a circular base, the extremely short lower part of the body entirely coated with raffia cloth, disc-shaped shoulders merging into rectangular arms with both hands resting aside a bulging navel, a long neck supporting a diamond-shaped face with concave hollowed face halves and a protruding chin, brass tags inserted in a vertical and horizontal line, animal horn on top of the head, string of glass beads, slightly dam., paint rubbed off, cracks and traces of insect caused damage (underside of the base)

H: 50 cm
H: 19.7 inch

Provenance
Kegel-Konietzko, Hamburg, Germany

Literature
Neyt, Francois, Songye, La redoutable Statuaire Songye d'Afrique Centrale, Ausst.kat., Brüssel 2004

Price: 1500 - 2300 €

412 Anthropomorphic face mask "kifwebe"

This object is not available any more.

Anthropomorphic face mask "kifwebe", D. R. Congo, Songe

D. R. Congo, Songe

wood, painted in red, black and white, of elongated narrow form, with extremely protruding eyes and mouth, crowned by a high crest which is merging into a triangular nose, covered with fine linear grooves, accentuated by red, white and black pigment which is rubbed into the deepenings, slightly dam., minor missing parts, traces of weathering

H: 58 cm
H: 22.8 inch

Literature
Hahner-Herzog, Iris, Das Zweite Gesicht, Afrikanische Masken aus der Sammlung Barbier-Mueller, Genf, München, New York 1997, ill. 88

Sold.

413 Three-parted group of power figures

This object is not available any more.

Three-parted group of power figures, D. R. Congo, Suku

D. R. Congo, Suku

wood, brown patina with spots, encrusted with camwood powder, a block-like triangular base, carved with three figures, two of them in front, framing the one arranged behind, each of them post-like, the arms carved in relief, showing various positions, the narrow heads supported by long necks, showing schematized facial features with pierced nose and ear holes, the foot zone wrapped up with knotted grass fibres, openings in the abdomen, filled with magical substances and closed with clay-like, encrusted mass, one figure showing an empty cavity, dam., missing parts (coiffure of one of the figures), paint rubbed off

H: 32 cm
H: 12.6 inch

Price: 850 - 1300 €

414 Standing figure "biteki koshi"

This object is not available any more.

Standing figure "biteki koshi", D. R. Congo, Suku

D. R. Congo, Suku

wood, reddish brown patina with traces of black paint, flat legs with zigzag-contours supporting a pear-shaped trunk with bulging abdomen, without shoulders merging into a strong neck, thin tube-like curved arms emerging from the back, both hands resting in front of the breast, crowned by a head with disc-shaped crested coiffure, the face dominated by a big nose with flat tip, a round chin with tapering beard and circular deepened ears, directy situated aside the eyes, small openings on top of the head and at the back of the figure ("cryptofetish"), presumably for insertion of magical material, slightly dam., cracks (right forearm, back of the head), minor missing parts (left foot, nose), old place of repair (a small piece of wood inserted below the right forearm), on base; commemorative statues and ancestral figures such as this are considered to be vehicles for the invisible benevolent forces that come from the ancestors. They are used by healers, diviners and clan chiefs in rituals pertaining to the ancestral cult.

H: 33,5 cm
H: 13.2 inch

Provenance
Coll. Pierre Eric Becker, Cannes, France

Literature
Bourgeois, Arthur P., The Yaka and Suku, Leiden 1985, Plate XIX, 1

Sold.

415 Standing figure "biteki koshi"

This object is not available any more.

Standing figure "biteki koshi", D. R. Congo, Suku

D. R. Congo, Suku

wood, dark brown encrusted patina, triangular feet and legs with tapering knees supporting a cylindrical, neckless trunk, long and thin arms emerging from the back, carved close to the body, arranged in acute angle in front of the breast, surmounted by a triangular face with slanting face halves and a half-spherical back of the head, the facial plane dominated by arching brows and a long, straight nose bridge, the incised eyes arranged asymmetrical, completed by a tiny mouth, situated at the tip of the chin, slightly dam., crack (back), paint rubbed off, on base

H: 22 cm
H: 8.7 inch

Provenance
Old Collection, Switzerland

Published in
Katalog zur Ausstellung: Power. Wealth and Art in West Africa, Tokyo 2002-2003, p. 153, ill. 217

Literature
Felix, Marc L., 100 Peoples of Zaire and their Sculpture, The Handbook, Brüssel 1987, p. 167
Bourgeois, Arthur P., Art of the Yaka and Suku, Paris 1984, plate XIX

Sold.

416 Standing figure

This object is not available any more.

Standing figure, D. R. Congo, Tabwa

D. R. Congo, Tabwa

wood, shiny dark brown patina, without feet rising from a circular base, showing elongated forms, a trunk with accentuated navel and angular shoulders merging into free worked arms, crowned by a circular head with simplified facial features and incised coiffure, min. dam., fissures, slight signs of abrasion, on wooden base; the Tabwa are a small ethnical group, living in the southeast of Zaire, along the southwestern banks of Lake Tanganyika. Their style reflects their geographic location at the East african rift, showing influences of the Luba, the Fipa and the Nyamwezi.

H: 32,5 cm
H: 12.8 inch

Provenance
Belgian Collection

Price: 400 - 600 €

417 Small power figure "biteki"

This object is not available any more.

Small power figure "biteki", D. R. Congo, Teke

D. R. Congo, Teke

wood, shiny reddish brown patina, rising from long, slightly bent legs, the front of the upper part of the body almost completely covered by a package of magical mass, a short neck carrying a characteristic Teke-head: beard, mouth and nose forming a triangle, nearly the whole face coated with vertical striations, surmounted by a tribe-typical headgear, min. dam., slight signs of abrasion, small missing parts (tip of the feet), on wooden base; such power figures had a protective function against diseases and sorcery. Their magical power was kept in a cylindrical package, called "bilongo", which includes the special ingredients put together according to the needs of the person in question. The package was fixed at the abdomen because to the Teke, magical wisdom can be swallowed and preserved in the stomach.

H: 17,5 cm
H: 6.9 inch

Provenance
Coll. Bud Holland, Chicago, USA

Literature
Lehuard, Raoul, Les arts Bateke, Arnouville 1996, p. 267, ill. 7.1.2

Sold.

418 Small magical figure "biteki"

This object is not available any more.

Small magical figure "biteki", D. R. Congo, Teke

D. R. Congo, Teke

wood, brown partly shiny patina, with slightly bent legs rising from strong feet, supporting a compact trunk with the arms carved in flat relief, both hands resting on the abdomen, above a long neck a characteristic Teke-head, crowned by a lobed coiffure, metal tags in the area of the belly and the forehead, min. dam., small missing parts, fissures, on wooden base

H: 20 cm
H: 7.9 inch

Provenance
Belgian Collection

Sold.

419 Magical figure "mpwau"

This object is not available any more.

Magical figure "mpwau", D. R. Congo, Teke/Yanzi

D. R. Congo, Teke/Yanzi

light brown wood, blackened in parts, shiny patina, a female and male figure standing back-to-back, bent legs with pointed knees supporting a protruding upper part of the body, angled arms worked close to the body, a bulging neck carrying an oval Janus head with scarification marks on the faces, crowned by a high sickle-shaped headgear with incisions, min. dam., insect caused damage, cracks

H: 34,5 cm
H: 13.6 inch

Provenance
Colonial Collection, Belgium

Literature
Lehuard, Raoul, Les arts Bateke, Arnouville 1996, p. 299

Price: 1800 - 2700 €

420 Mask "ndeemba"

This object is not available any more.

Mask "ndeemba", D. R. Congo, Yaka

D. R. Congo, Yaka

wood, fabric, rattan, polychrome painted, rattan framework, stretched with fabric, crowned by a hat-like headgear with broad brim, an oval face with open-worked, almond-shaped eyes below, flanking a tribe-typical "snub nose", rectangular chin appendage, the whole facial plane covered with white and blue paint, pierced around the rim, min. dam., fissures, slight signs of abrasion, on base; used at circumcision rites for young boys, symbolizing fertility and virility.

H: 38 cm
H: 15 inch

Provenance
Alain Naoum, Brussels, Belgium

Literature
Bourgeois, Arthur P., Art of the Yaka and Suku, Paris 1984, p. 159

Sold.

421 Power figure

This object is not available any more.

Power figure, D. R. Congo, Yaka

D. R. Congo, Yaka

wood, brown patina, remains of pigments, slightly bent legs rising from big feet, supporting a cylindrical trunk with bulging belly and round cavity filled with magical mass, decorated with small snails, angled arms worked close to the body with the hands resting in front of the chest, a short neck supporting a big head with tribe-typical facial features and headgear, two small bundles with magical mass and feathers aside, min. dam., cracks, missing parts (headgear, base), on base; such figures served as containers of protective magical power exercised by the experts against illness, to avenge sorcery and for supernatural assistance in hunting.

H: 34 cm
H: 13.4 inch

Provenance
Old Collection, Belgium

Sold.

422 Sitting figure "niongi"

This object is not available any more.

Sitting figure "niongi", D. R. Congo, Yombe

D. R. Congo, Yombe

wood, brown partly spotty shiny patina, carved on a square base, decorated with metal tags, both legs angled, the right one in upright position with both hands resting on the knee, a short neck supporting an oval head with voluminous turban-like coiffure, sickle-shaped eyes flanking a straight nose with bulbous nostrils, a slightly opened mouth with filed teeth below, min. dam., cracks, missing parts because of insect caused damage (back, left foot), on wooden base; tombs of important people were honoured with small shrines where figures like the present, called "niongi", were placed. The ritual art of this area can be distinguished by an idealized portrait-like realism, carved with powerful curves and showing teeth deformations. Medium-sized figures usually were made of honey-brown wood, showing a great accuracy in anatomical details.

H: 24,5 cm
H: 9.6 inch

Provenance
Private Collection, Denmark

Literature
Felix, Marc L., 100 Peoples of Zaire and their Sculpture, The Handbook, Brüssel 1987, p. 201, ill. 18

Price: 7000 - 11000 €

423 Colon figure

This object is not available any more.

Colon figure, D. R. Congo, Yombe

D. R. Congo, Yombe

wood, painted in black and white, the latter darkened to a light greyish colour, standing on a massive base, the slender body veiled by a long skirt and a jacket, the free carved arms angled aside the body, holding a bottle with the right hand, crowned by a head with parted coiffure, nose and mouth carved, while the eyes and brows are painted, as well as the scarification marks on forehead and cheeks, decorating brass tags backside, dam., places of repair (lower arm and wrist right hand side), crack (base); such figures originate from the contact between Europeans and Africans. They naturally show elements of the traditonal style of the respective region they are made. Its not unusual that there is a touch of humour and criticism implied.

H: 61 cm
H: 24 inch

Provenance
Coll. Jos Walscharts, Antwerp, Belgium
Philippe & Lisa Laeremans, Liège, Belgium

Exposed in
1920, Antwerp, Belgium

Literature
Jahn, Jens (Hg.), Colon. Das schwarze Bild vom weißen Mann, Ausst.kat., München 1983, ill. 130

Price: 4000 - 6000 €

424 Small magical figure

This object is not available any more.

Small magical figure, D. R. Congo, Yombe

D. R. Congo, Yombe

wood, dark brown patina, standing on a circular base, the entire body coated with bands of knotted cloth, surmounted by an oval head with a teeth revealing mouth and a narrow nose, circular eyes inlaid with glass, originally wearing a package with magical mass on top of the head, min. dam., slight signs of abrasion; as soon as the magical material "bilongo" was inserted by the witchdoctor, the object was considered to be "magically loaded" and its power "nkisi" could be activated by certain incantations. They were not especially adorned. Of real importance was their magic effectiveness and their ability for fortune-telling. They were used for warding of witchcraft, diseases and thieves.

H: 27,5 cm
H: 10.8 inch

Provenance
Grijpenman, The Netherlands
Laurent van Ham, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Literature
Lehuard, Raoul, Art Bakongo, Les Centres de Style, o.O. 1989, p. 542
Sothby's New York, The William W. Brill Collection of African Art, 17 November 2006, lot 147 (very similar figure/same carver)

Sold.

425 Female figure

This object is not available any more.

Female figure, D. R. Congo, Yombe

D. R. Congo, Yombe

wood, blackish brown patina, kneeling on a rectangular base with the upper part of the body slightly bent forward, broad and round shoulders merging into extremely short arms with both hands resting aside the breasts, crowned by an egg-shaped head with well-balanced and symmetrical arranged facial features, the receding forehead surmounted by a diademlike coiffure, slightly dam., cracks (right side of the head, leg zone, middle of the body), minor missing parts because of insect caused damage (groin and coiffure), on base; originally top part of a ceremonial staff.

H: 19 cm
H: 7.5 inch

Provenance
Coll. Albrecht Schultze-Lidl, Germany

Sold.

426 Standing figure

This object is not available any more.

Standing figure, D. R. Congo, Zimba

D. R. Congo, Zimba

wood, dull patina, thin legs supporting a barrel-shaped trunk with clamp-like arms and sloping shoulders, both hands resting on the belly, crowned by a narrow head with circular drilled eyes and crested coiffure, min. dam., missing parts (left lower leg), insect caused damage, slight signs of abrasion, on base

H: 25,5 cm
H: 10 inch

Provenance
Woods, Davy, California, USA

Price: 800 - 1200 €

427 Mask

This object is not available any more.

Mask, D. R. Congo, Zimba

D. R. Congo, Zimba

wood, reddish brown patina with traces of black paint, of flat and oval form, arching brows with narrow slit eyes below, flanking a narrow, short nose, the whole face dominated by a broad laughing mouth with grooved contours, slightly dam., scratches, crack (chin), paint rubbed off, on metal base; Zimba sculpture is derived from two different sources: one of the Lega-Bembe world of the forest with its intricate "bwami" association rites, and the other the Luba world of the savanna with its prestige or power emblems and objects relating to the "budje" society. The rare masks of the Zimba were also probably borrowed from the "bwami" association.

H: 26 cm
H: 10.2 inch

Provenance
Private Collection, Maastricht, The Netherlands

Literature
Felix, Marc L., 100 Peoples of Zaire and their Sculpture, The Handbook, Brüssel 1987, p. 206 f.
Schädler, Karl-Ferdinand, Lexikon Afrikanische Kunst und Kultur, München/Berlin 1994, p. 405

Price: 2200 - 3300 €

428 Sitting figure

This object is not available any more.

Sitting figure, Angola, Holo

Angola, Holo

wood, shiny brown patina, carved on a round base, with tucked up legs sitting on a kind of stool, narrow sloping shoulders merging into angled arms, carved close to the body, both hands resting below the chin, a short neck supporting an oval head with almond-shaped eyes flanking a flat, broad nose, crowned by a coiffure with two lobes aside, two drillings (right elbow, left cheek), min. dam., on wooden base; there is only little known about the use of Holo objects.

H: 22,5 cm
H: 8.9 inch

Provenance
Rut van Caelenbergh, Brussels, Belgium

Literature
Neyt, Francois, Die Kunst der Holo, München 1982, p. 60, fig. 17

Sold.

429 Mask "sachihongo"

Angola, Mbunda

wood, painted in black and reddish brown, a broad and chinless face with bulging cheeks, eyes in flat circular holes with concentrical arching brows above, crowned by a flat diadem-like head crest, a disc-shaped flattened beard at the bottom, slightly dam., crack (head crest, spread with mass), inscribed backside "Bulawayo 1933", remittance work for the art market; the "sachihongo" mask type represents a hunter with bow and arrow impersonating a "big male boss, old and strong". The mask appeared after circumcision of young boys. It was supplemented by a head ornament of feathers and palm leaves and a net-skirt.

H: 48 cm, coll. in situ
H: 18.9 inch, coll. in situ

Provenance
Old Collection, Great Britain

Literature
Hahner-Herzog, Iris, Das Zweite Gesicht, Afrikanische Masken aus der Sammlung Barbier-Mueller, Genf, München, New York 1997, ill. 87

Price: 650 - 1000 €

430 Stool

This object is not available any more.

Stool, Angola, Ovimbundu

Angola, Ovimbundu

wood, dark brown patina, a circular vaulted base, supporting a cylindrical middle strut with two angled projections aside, carrying a hollowed seat on top, the middle strut in openwork design, decorated with mask faces, slightly dam., cracks

H: 30 cm
H: 11.8 inch

Price: 400 - 650 €

431 Dignitary staff

This object is not available any more.

Dignitary staff, Angola, Ovimbundu

Angola, Ovimbundu

wood, reddish brown patina with traces of black paint, round staff, carved with a cylindrical human head with a short, cut off chin and a half-spherical back of the head with lobed coiffure, coated with elaborate ornaments in flat relief and separated from the facial plane by a grooved band, lancet shaped eyes in round hollows flanking a straight nose, distinct nasolabial crinkles aside, a small notched mouth at the tip of the chin, cross- and arrow-shaped tattoos on cheeks and forehead, slightly dam., minor missing parts (nose, chin), cracks, missing parts because of insect caused damage (upper part of the staff), on metal plate; staffs have many functions. Called ceremonial, title, ritual or chief's staffs, they were, and in many areas still are, a status symbol, a distinguishing mark or a tool, used by a wide range of ritual specialists, such as headman, female leaders of lineages or associations, diviners, healers, exorcists, and witch hunters, in a variety of ways.

H: 70 cm
H: 27.6 inch

Provenance
Coll. Joseph & Doris Gerofsky, New York, USA
John Dintenfass, New York, USA

Literature
Bastin, Marie-Louise, De sculptuur van Angola, Ausst.kat., Lissabon/Antwerpen 1993, p. 165

Sold.

432 Group of spoons for grain

This object is not available any more.

Group of spoons for grain, Ethiopia

Ethiopia

3 pieces, wood, reddish brown patina with spots, long shaft, round in cross-section, two times carved with a lancet-shaped, slightly hollowed spoon, the third spoon triangular, slightly dam., paint rubbed off, traces of usage (above all at the biggest spoon) and minor missing parts, on metal plate

H: 94/102 /114 cm
H: 94/102 /44.9 inch

Provenance
Private Collection, Paris, France

Price: 600 - 900 €

433 Group of spoons for grain

This object is not available any more.

Group of spoons for grain, Ethiopia

Ethiopia

5 pieces, wood, dark brown patina, long shafts, round in cross-section, carved with lancet-shaped spoons of different sizes, more or less hollowed, paint rubbed off, traces of usage, slightly dam., crack (at the rim of one of the spoons), on metal plates

H: 98cm, 99cm resp. 102 - 106 m
H: 38.6 inch, 39 inch resp. 102 - 106 m

Provenance
Private Collection, Paris, France

Price: 950 - 1500 €

434 Three neckrests

This object is not available any more.

Three neckrests, Ethiopia

Ethiopia

wood, brown, oily patina, one neckrest with a two-parted conical base, supporting a lancet-shaped, hollowed pillow with grooved linear lines, h: 18,5 cm; the second neckrest rising from an oval base with open worked middle part supporting a lancet-shaped vaulted pillow, h: 19 cm; the third neckrest made of one piece of wood with a slightly hollowed "pillow" and metal decoration, min. dam., h: 17,5 cm


Price: 950 - 1500 €

435 Tomb stela with ancestor head

This object is not available any more.

Tomb stela with ancestor head, Sudan, Bongo/Belanda

Sudan, Bongo/Belanda

wood, light brown patina, massive, cylindrical post of about 15 cm in diameter, the lower half plain, while the upper half is divided into 12 disc-or spindle-shaped segments, crowned by a broad head with a flat facial plane and reduced facial features concentrated on a rather small area, completed by round ears and a grooved coiffure, dam. at the rims, cracks, missing parts because of insect caused damage (top of the head), traces of weathering; the Bongo were a society of hunters and warriors. Success in hunt and combat awarded them with social prestige during lifetime. After their death tomb stelas were set up, as signs for their success in hunting, assuring that the hunter keeps the rank he gained during lifetime even in the hereafter. The tomb stelas were erected about one year after the burial took place in combination with a cylindrical stone crop. The conception of the stela-like sculptures as well as the area they were placed in, reminds of the sepultural conventions of the people from Madagascar, i. e. the Mahafaly and the Sakalava.

H: 114 cm
H: 44.9 inch

Literature
Scharf, Dieter (Hg.), Sehen lernen - Eine Sammlung afrikanischer Figuren, Köln 1999, p. 76, ill. 27
Schädler, Karl-Ferdinand, Lexikon Afrikanische Kunst und Kultur, München/Berlin 1994, p. 90 f.

Price: 9000 - 14000 €

436 Neckrest

This object is not available any more.

Neckrest, Sudan, Dinka

Sudan, Dinka

wood, brown patina, three legs supporting a curved seat, both ends in the shape of stylized animal heads, decorated with metal tags, slight signs of usage

H: 19,5 cm; L: 50 cm
H: 7.7 inch; L: 19.7 inch

Provenance
Colonial Collection, Belgium

Literature
Nettleton, Anitra, African Dream Machines, Styles, Identity and Meaning of African Headrests, Johannesburg 2007, p. 316

Price: 400 - 600 €

437 Anthropomorphic tobacco pipe "dak"

Sudan, Shilluk

bamboo shaft, elaborate terracotta pipes head in the shape of an animal with big open snout, decorated with delicate incised ornaments, fixed by animal skin and twisted cord material, small bowl-shaped gourd with mouth piece on top; the Shilluk use two types of "dak", the "dangduong" and the "dangthen". The former is kept within the family enclosure, while the latter is more commonly used in public. But the two types are not structurally different. The skin made mouth piece is fitted around a gourd plant, filled with a filtering material called "anywön". It is made from a plant known as "thitho", treated in a special way that makes the fibres very soft. It is changed when it becomes thick and bitter with nicotine.

L: 69 cm, coll. in Egypt by a serviceman in WW II
L: 27.2 inch, coll. in Egypt by a serviceman in WW II

Provenance
Private Collection, Great Britain

Literature
Mildner-Spindler, Roma, Rund um Tabakspfeifen, Afrikanisches Kunsthandwerk aus dem Museum für Völkerkunde Berlin, Berlin 1992, p. 60, ill. 37

Price: 1600 - 2400 €

438 Two metal miniature objects

This object is not available any more.

Two metal miniature objects, Chad, Lere

Chad, Lere

staff-shaped object, trifold forked on top, residues of black paint, encrusted with clay, h: 7 cm; human figure, hammered, h: 2,2 cm, with traces of corrosion, both on cubic bases


Provenance
Coll. Roland Hartmann, St. Gallen, Switzerland

Sold.

439 Standing colon figure

Kenya, Kamba

wood, dull, reddish brown patina, dressed in boots, shorts and a uniform jacket, holding a rifle in the right hand, the oval head showing a well-rounded forehead and cheeks with scarification marks, the eyes inset with greyish mass, the facial plane enclosed by big ears, surmounted by a fez-like headgear, min. dam., slight signs of abrasion, fissures, small missing parts; the Kamba traditionally applied their carving skills to articles of daily use, such as stools, spoons, snuff bottles, handles for knives and axes, as well as prestigious ceremonial sticks. The first figurative carvings can be traced back to one man - Mutisya Munge - a Kamba tribesman, who joined the army in 1914 and at the same time began to produce carvings of Askaris and African people in traditional clothing for the purpose of selling them to Europeans.

H: 29 cm
H: 11.4 inch

Provenance
Private Collection, New York, USA

Literature
Stevenson, Michael/Graham-Stewart, Michael, The Mlungu in Africa, 2003, p. 72

Price: 600 - 900 €

440 Fertility doll "ikoku"

This object is not available any more.

Fertility doll "ikoku", Kenya, Turkana

Kenya, Turkana

wood, middle brown patina, overlength legs supporting a columnar trunk with free carved, short arms, a long neck surmounted by a proportionally small head without facial features, the head flattened on top and at the chin, two leather aprons (goat) around the hips, braid with white glass beads, slightly dam., crack (back of the head, back), missing parts (left foot tip), on base; the dolls are called "ngide", children (sing. "ikoku"). They are carved by the father and decorated by the mother. They help young girls to practice their later mother role. The tapering leather apron is typical for unmarried young girls.

H: 35,5 cm
H: 14 inch

Provenance
Coll. Ingo Evers, Bonn, Germany

GVR Archives Registration No.
010140

Literature
Bofinger, Brigitte und Wolfgang, Puppen aus Afrika, Stuttgart 2006, p. 76 f.

Sold.

441 Mask "lipiko"

This object is not available any more.

Mask "lipiko", Tanzania, Makonde

Tanzania, Makonde

wood, polychrome paint, real hair, showing realistic european facial features: small eyes with painted pupils are flanking a short straight nose, a slightly opened mouth with visible teeth below, crowned by a coiffure of real hair and a coloured hat, min. dam., missing parts, cracks, slight signs of abrasion, on metal base; "lipiko" masks appeared at initiation celebrations. They were worn by the young initiates "vaali" at the "mapiko" masquerade. They depict woman rather than men and were kept in special sacred mask houses outside the village. Women were not allowed to see them.

H: 22 cm
H: 8.7 inch

Provenance
Bernard Dulon, Paris, France
Edward J. Klejman, Paris, France

Price: 2200 - 3300 €

442 Female figure

This object is not available any more.

Female figure, Tanzania, Pare

Tanzania, Pare

wood, shiny blackish brown patina, of schematized form, fork-shaped legs supporting a strong upper part of the body, broad shoulders merging into short arms, a strong neck supporting a spherical head with a heart-shaped facial plane, the eyes inset with glass beads, flanked by big, round ears with central deepening, hole on top of the head, min. dam., rep. (right arm), slight signs of abrasion, on metal base; only few figures of the Pare are known, partially they are dressed, partially they are worked as receptacles. They served diviners, healers and sorcerers with their practices.

H: 64 cm
H: 25.2 inch

Provenance
Coll. Dieter Schnurr, Vienna, Austria

Literature
Schädler, Karl-Ferdinand, Lexikon Afrikanische Kunst und Kultur, München/Berlin 1994, p. 326
Jahn, Jens (Hg.), Tanzania, Meisterwerke afrikanischer Kunst, München 1994, p. 193, ill. 99

Sold.

443 Title staff

This object is not available any more.

Title staff, Tanzania, Sukuma

Tanzania, Sukuma

wood, shiny reddish brown patina, traces of black paint, a round staff with a small disc-shaped base on top, carved with a standing figure, the proportionally thin arms folded in front of the upper part of the body, crowned by a bowl-shaped head with straight cut chin and big, spiral ears, slightly dam., hairline cracks, on base; staffs have many functions. Called ceremonial, title, ritual or chief's staffs, they were, and in many areas still are, a status symbol, a distinguishing mark or a tool, used by a wide range of ritual specialists, such as headman, female leaders of lineages or associations, diviners, healers, exorcists, and witch hunters, in a variety of ways.

H: 104 cm
H: 40.9 inch

Provenance
Coll. Lungere, Malmö, Sweden

Sold.

444 Mask

This object is not available any more.

Mask, Tanzania, Sukuma

Tanzania, Sukuma

wood, remains of polychrome paint, of elongated oval form, a slightly bulging forehead with a blackened cap-like coiffure, almond-shaped pierced eyes underneath curved eyebrows, flanking a rather flat nose with a slightly raised nose bridge and broad alae, a rectangular pierced mouth below, the face framed by two big ears with drilled holes, min. dam., missing parts because of insect caused damage, cracks, on metal base; numbering 3,5 million people the Sukuma are the largest ethnical group in Tanzania. They are settling southeast of Lake Victoria between Mwanza and Shinyanga.

H: 27,5 cm
H: 10.8 inch

Provenance
Peter Loebarth, Hameln, Germany

Literature
Roy, Christopher D., Kilengi, Afrikanische Kunst aus der Sammlung Bareiss, München 1997, p. 82

Price: 3800 - 6000 €

445 Fertility doll "mwana hiti"

This object is not available any more.

Fertility doll "mwana hiti", Tanzania, Zaramo

Tanzania, Zaramo

wood, brown, partly shiny patina, abstract form, a slightly vaulted base, supporting an armless cylindrical trunk, a columnar neck surmounted by a bowl-shaped head with simplified facial features and a "split" crested coiffure, cracks, small missing parts; Zaramo female initiates keep such figures during their period of seclusion and coming out ceremonies. After the ceremony the young woman wears the "mwana hiti" around the neck or holds it in her hand. The doll is a kind of substitute child, until the woman will have a "real" one.

H: 13,5 cm
H: 5.3 inch

Provenance
Coll. Marc L. Felix, Brussels, Belgium

Literature
Dagan, Esther A., African Dolls for play and magic, Montreal 1990, p. 127

Price: 500 - 750 €

446 Ceremonial staff

This object is not available any more.

Ceremonial staff, South Africa, Nguni

South Africa, Nguni

wood, reddish brown patina, traces of black paint, round staff, crowned by an anthropomorphic head with asymmetrical facial features, deeply cut narrow eye slits, pyro-engraved brows, linear scarification marks on the cheeks, funnel-shaped ears with a drilled hole in the middle, the neck area wrapped with copper wire, slightly dam., hairline cracks, on base

H: 36 cm
H: 14.2 inch

Provenance
Fily Keita, Los Angeles, USA

Literature
Conru, Kevin (ed.), The Art of Southeast Africa, Mailand 2002, p. 112, ill. 53

Sold.

447 Fertility doll "gimwane"

This object is not available any more.

Fertility doll "gimwane", South Africa, Ntwani

South Africa, Ntwani

wood, plant fibres, beads, buttons, cloth, a wooden core of legless, cylindrical form with free worked arms, the whole body coated with cloth and wrapped in bead bracelets resp. twisted plant fibres, bowl-shaped head with two buttons marking the eyes; min. dam.; the Ntwani are a subgroup of the Sotho living near by the Ndbele in the Transvaal. The influence of the neighbours shows up in the beaded bracelets wrapped around the dolls hips.

H: 28 cm
H: 11 inch

Literature
Cameron, Elisabeth L., Isn't she a doll? Play and Ritual in African Sculpture, Los Angeles 1996, p. 106 f.

Price: 1200 - 1800 €

448 Bridal badges"omakipa"

This object is not available any more.

Bridal badges"omakipa", Namibia

Namibia

ivory, four pieces, of different size, oval and round in form, vaulted upper side, various incised patterns around the rims, pierced holes backside, natural grains, one of omakipas with crack; young Cuanhama girls received such badges from their fiancés, their number informed about his wealth and the number of cattle he ownes. Even the incised patterns had a special meaning. The "omakipas" were attached to leather straps and fixed to belts, worn around the hips by the young brides.

H: 3,5 cm, 7,5 cm resp. 8 cm
H: 1.4 inch, 3 inch resp. 3.1 inch

Literature
Ginzberg, Marc, Afrikanische Formen, Mailand 2001, p. 257

Sold.

449 Tribal Art

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Auktionskataloge, Christie's

3 Stk., Important Tribal Art, London, Wednesday, 30 November 1994; Art Africain et Océanien, Paris, Mardi 20 juin 2006; Tribal Art, New York, Thursday, June 14, 1979


Sold.

450 Auktionskataloge

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Auktionskataloge

3 Stk., Arts Primitifs, Guy Loudmer, Mardi 31 Mai 1983, Paris; Cornette de Saint Cyr, Arts Primitifs, Drouot Richelieu, Samedi 14 Avril 2007; M. Y. M. le Roux, M. J.-J. Mathias, Collection Henri Bigorne, Paris 1987


Sold.

451 Vente de Sculptures d' Afrique, d'Amerique et d' Océanie

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Auktionskataloge, Hotel Drouot, Paris

le 7 Mai 1931


Sold.

452 Arts Primitifs

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Auktionskataloge, Loudmer-Poulain, Paris

5 Stk., 22 Novembre 1979; 21 & 22 Mars 1980; 20 Juin 1980; 6 Decembre 1980; 24 Juin 1981


Sold.

453 Pre-Columbian Art

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Auktionskataloge, Sotheby's New York

2 Stk., Fine American Indian Art, Wednesday, May 27, 1987; Pre-Columbian Art, Tuesday, May 19, 1992


Price: 15 - 20 €

454 Rêves de Collection

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein, Barbier-Mueller, Jean Paul

Sept millénaires de scultures inédites - Europe, Asie, Afrique, Paris 2003


Sold.

455 Ursprung und Moderne

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein, Baum, Peter

Ausst.kat., Linz 1990


Price: 40 - 60 €

456 Sculptures Africaines et Océaniennes

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein, Clouzot, H. & A. Level

Paris o.J.


Sold.

457 Konvolut: 3 Titel zur Ethnologie

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein

Birket-Smith, K., Geschichte der Kultur, Eine allgemeine Ethnologie, Zürich 1946, im Schuber; Weigert, H., Kleine Kunstgeschichte der Vorzeit und der Naturvölker, Stuttgart 1956; Hausenstein, W., Barbaren und Klassiker, Ein Buch von der Bildnerei Exotischer Völker, München 1922, im Schuber


Price: 40 - 60 €

458 Konvolut: 6 Bücher

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein

Savary, Claude, Arts Africains sans les collections privées Neuchâteloises, Ausst.kat., Neuchâtel 1985; Arts Africains dans les collections Genevoises, Genf 1973; Hotel Drouot, Paris, Ancienne Collection Paul Guillaume, Art Nègre, 9 Novembre 1965; The Huberte Goote Gallery (Hg.), Mutter und Kind in der Weltkunst, Ausst.kat., Zug 1998; Stiftung St. Galler Museen (Hg.), Aussereuropäische Kunst, Vermächtnis Leslie Edgar Unwin, St. Gallen 1993; Basler, Adolphe, L'Art chez les peuples primitifs, Paris 1929, im Pappschuber


Sold.

459 Zeitschriften: Tribal

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein

le magazine de l'art tribal, No. 2, Printemps 2003; No. 3, Ete 2003, No. 4, Automne 2003; No. 5, Hiver 2003; No. 6, Printemps 2004


Price: 40 - 60 €

460 Zwei Zeitschriften A4

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein

Magazin für Aussereuropäische Kunst und Kultur, Afrika-Australien-Asien-Amerikas, Ausgabe 01/05 und 01/06


Price: 10 - 15 €

461 Exotische Kunst im Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein, Fröhlich, W. (Hg.)

2. erw. Aufl., Köln 1971


Price: 20 - 30 €

462 Die Kunst der Primitiven

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein, Kühn, Herbert

2 Bde., Text- und Abbildungsband, München 1923, im Pappschuber


Sold.

463 Ferne Völker - Frühe Zeiten

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein, Linden-Museum Stuttgart

2 Bde., Kunstwerke aus dem Linden-Museum Stuttgart, Staatliches Museum für Völkerkunde, Band 1: Afrika, Ozeanien, Amerika, Recklinghausen 1982; Band 2: Orient, Südasien, Ostasien, Recklinghausen 1982, im Pappschuber


Price: 30 - 45 €

464 L' Art Malgache

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein, Lormian, Henri

Paris o. J.


Sold.

465 Keramik aus Schwarz-Afrika und Alt-Amerika

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein, Schädler, Karl Ferdinand

Die Sammlung Hans Wolf - Zürich, dreispr. dt.-eng.-frz., Zürich 1985, im Pappschuber


Price: 40 - 60 €

466 Festschrift Alfred Bühler

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein, Schmitz, Carl A. & Robert Wildhaber

Basler Beiträge zur Geographie und Ethnologie, Ethnologische Reihe, Band 2, Basel 1965, im Pappschuber


Price: 50 - 80 €

467 Religiöse Plastik der Naturvölker

This object is not available any more.

Part of the silent auction, which is not called. Only written bids till 4 pm on 2014, March 21 Please take notice of the special terms of sale for the silent auction.

Literatur: Allgemein, Vatter, Ernst

Frankfurt am Main 1926


Price: 40 - 60 €

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